VIDYARANYA (MADHVACHARYA), 1268-
an ascetic and a philosopher, credited with a pivotal role in the
the Vijayanagara Empire in the fourteenth century is a historical personality attributed
with super natural powers. He is deemed to be the guiding spirit and minister
of Harihararaya-1 (Hakka) and Bukkaraya-1 the founder kings of the empire.
Apparently, Vidyaranya was deeply concerned with the renaissance of the
Hinduism against the onslaughts of the Muslim monarchs. It is allegedly on his
advice that the empire was built at Hampi on the banks of the
Vidyaranya is a philosopher
belonging to the monistic (Advaitha) school of the Vaidic religion. Records say
that he took up asceticism in 1331 A.D. He was the pontiff in the Shringeri
MaTha, established by Adi Shankaracharya the founder of the
‘Sarvadarshanasangraha’ is a very
important compendium delineating sixteen
different schools of Hindu philosophy. They are ‘cArvAka’, buddha, arhata
(Jaina), ‘nakulIsha-pAshupata’, ‘pUrNaprajna’, ‘shaiva’, ‘pratyabhijna’,
‘vaishESika’, (aulukya) ‘jaiminIya, ‘sAnKya’, ‘pANinIya’, AkAshapAda (nyAya),
rAsEsvara, vedAnta and ‘pAtanjala’. This is is one of the few available
sources of information about ‘lOkaayata’, the materialist system of philosophy
‘parAshara mAdhavIyam’ is a commentary on ‘parAshara smriti’. It contains three chapters delineating the rituals and other intricacies of the dharmashastra. ‘kALa nirNaya’ gives appropriate and auspicious muhUrthas for various occasions. ‘SangIta sAra’ considered to be an important text on musicology is not yet found.
Vidyaranya passed away in 1386 A.D. (approx.) Some records aver that his ‘samAdhi’ is situated behind the Virupaksha temple at Hampi.
‘Kriyashakti Vidyaranya’ by
T.N. Mallappa, 1974,
‘Vidyaranya Bharati: essays on
Vidyaranya’, English, Sanskrit and Telugu, 1990, department of Telugu,
3. ‘The Age of Vidyaranya’ by K.R. Venkataraman, M.K. Venkatarama Iyer, K.R. Srinivasa Iyengar 1976, Kalpa Printers and Publishers.
4. ವಿದ್ಯಾರಣ್ಯರು ಮತ್ತು ಅವರ ಕಾಲ, ಡಿ.ವಿ.ಗುಂಡಪ್ಪ, ಕರ್ನಾಟಕ ಪ್ರಕಟಣಾಲಯ, ಬೆಂಗಳೂರು.