KANNADA AND KONKANI
Konkani (koNkaNi) is an
important language which is spoken mainly in the state of
Konkani does not have a script of its own. Native speakers of the language use either the Kannada script or the Devanagari depending on their inhabitation. Many religious texts, periodicals, books and accounts are written in the Kannada script in many parts of Karnataka. Native speakers of Konkani in Karnataka are bilinguals and their knowledge of Kannada is commendable. This is essentially a non reciprocal bilingualism because native speakers of Kannada hardly learn Konkani. As a matter of fact, there are many Konakani speaking writers in Karnataka who have contributed hugely to the development of Kannada literature. Panje Mangesha Rao, M.N.Kamath, M.Govinad Pai, Gangadhara Chittal, Dinakar Desai, Yashwant Chittal, Gourisha Kaikini, Na. D’Souza and Jayant Kaikini are a few among them. There is a slight difference between the Konkani spoken by the Christian community and the non Christian communities.
Continuous inter action between these communities over a period of time has resulted in influences which are largely unilateral. Kannada has influenced Konakani at the levels of morphology, syntax, vocabulary and larger semantic units such as proverbs and idioms. For instance many Konkani sentences that are accepted as grammatical by Gaud Saraswat Brahmans of Karnataka will not be treated like that in Maharastra because their Konkani is not influenced by Kannada. This phenomenon is illustrated by Nadakarni, Bernd Heine and Tanya Kuteva in their writings.
Many Kannada proverbs are accepted by Konkani either in their entirety or in parts. Many Kannada words such as duDDu, (money), nattu, (nose ring) bAvali, (bat) baDDi, (interest) and bAgilu (door) have found permanent places in Konkani often replacing the original Konkani words. The influence of Kannada grammar on Konkani grammar is found in following instances:
1. Using short vowels J and M instead of the long vowels which are indigenous to Konkani.
2. Words ending with consonants acquire a vowel at the end.
3. Some case suffixes resemble the corresponding ones in Kannada rather than the Indo Aryan originals.
These details do not take
away the fact that Konkani is not a Dravidian language. The Government of
Karnataka has set up a separate ‘
The relationship between Kannada and Konkani is based on mutual acceptance and trust and it is not based on lingustic chuvanism.
References: 1. A History of Konkani Literature: From 1500 to 1992, By Manohararāya Saradesai
Published by Sahitya Akademi, 2000
2. The Christian Konkani of
3. Literary Konkani: A Brief History J
4. The Konkani Language: Historical and Linguistic Perspectives by V.Nithyanantha Bhat, Ela Sunita, Sukruteendra, Oriental Research Institute, 2004
5. ‘Konkani Bhasheya Ugama mattu Belavanige’, by Krishnanada Kamat (in the website ‘Kamat’s Potpourri’, (English version)
Links: 1. Language
Contact and Grammatical Change - Page 95 (Kannada and Konkani)
(Bernd Heine and Tania Kuteva,
2. Essays on Konkani Language and Literature: Professor Armando (Prof Armando Menezes)