KANNADA AND TELUGU
and Telugu are two of the most important Dravidian languages. Kannada belongs
to the subgroup of South Dravidian languages, whereas Telugu is classified
under South Central Dravidian languages. However these two are bound together
by historical and geographical in many regions of Andhrapradesh and Karnataka.
Many districts in these states such as Bidar,
Krishnamurti puts the relations between Kannada and Telugu in a historical
perspective in his book on Dravidian languages. “Although it (Telugu) is
genetically closer to its northern neighbours, as a literary language, Telugu
has a great measure of give and take with Kannada; Telugu and Kannada have a
common stage of evolution in their script called Telugu-Kannada script (seventh
to thirteenth century). There were several Saivite poets who wrote both in
Telugu and Kannada. The Vijayanagara king Krishnadevaraya patronized both
Kannada and Telugu poetry. Consequently there are extensive lexical borrowings
between Telugu and Kannada both ways.” (‘The Dravidian Languages’, 2003,
and Andhrapradesh have a common border running to 1230 kilometers without any
major geographical barrier that makes transportation difficult. This has
facilitated a smooth exchange of linguistic, cultural and literary phenomenon.
Both of them have received ample sustenance from Sanskrit in terms of
vocabulary. Scholars have opined that in both these languages ‘tatsamas’
(original Sanskrit words) were used by the poets and scholars in their works,
where as ‘tadbhavas’ were used by common unlettered people. These influences have extended to the areas
of prosody and grammar also. Sanskrit vruttas and kandapadyas are borrowed by
both these languages. AmshagaNa Candassu in both these languages have many
similar proto forms as can be learnt by a meticulous study of the texts on
prosody. Palatalization which is present in Telugu is conspicuous by its
absence in literary Kannada. (k>>>>g, c>>>>>j) Mutation of the vowels ‘i’ and ‘e’ to ‘u’ and
‘o’ is common to Telugu and Kannada. There are many common/similar words in the
early epics of Kannada by
Dr B.Ramachandra Rao (1984) has made a detailed study of the regions which constitute the border between Andhrapradesh and Karnataka. He has delineated the impact of Telugu morphology and vocabulary on Kannada and given a number of instances where new words and usages are created by meging the usage patterns of these two languages.
Thus Kannada has a long history of association and mutual assimilation with Telugu.
Dravidian Languages’ by Bh. Krishnamurti, 2003,
2. ‘Folk Songs in Telugu and Kannada- A comparative study’, by R.V.S. Sundaram, 1979.
3. ‘Folk Ramayanas in Telugu and Kannada’ by T.Goplakrishna Rao, 1984.
4. ‘Sound Change’ by D.N. Shankara Bhat, 2001.
;Materials for a sketch of Kannada spoken in
Andhrapradesh-Karnataka Border’, by B.Ramachandra Rao, 1984,
6. ‘kannada BAseya itihAsa’ by B.Ramachandra Rao, 1998, D.V.K. Murthy, Mysore.