1. Shabdamaniidarpana (ಶಬ್ದಮಣಿದರ್ಪಣ)
4. 13th Century
6. Shabdamanidarpana is an ancient grammar in Kannada. It was written, approximately in 1260 by Keshiraja. He follows the model propounded by Katantra Vyakarana of Sanskrit. It contains ten parts including an introduction and a concluding section with a small lexicon. sandhi, nAma, samAsa, taddhita, AkhyAta, DAtu, apBraMsha avyaya are the remaining parts. They deal with grammatical categories such as the phonological system, conjunction, compounding of words, nouns, verb roots, suffixation et al. The All in all it contains 343 verses or 'SUtrs' as he calls them. Shabdamanidarpana is composed in verse using Kandapadyas. But the author has written an explicatory commentary in prose (Vrutti) for each of those poems.(SUtra). Of course later commentaries written by Nittura Nanjaiah and Linganaradhya have furthered the discussion. 'Aloka' a commentary written in the twentieth century by H.S.Biligiri looks at this work from the perspective of modern linguistics. ‘Shabdamanidarpana’ is perhaps the best work on the grammar of ancient Kannada. The author is at once descriptive and rather critical about the changes that are taking place in the language as it was in a period of tranasition from old Kannada to medieval Kannada. He structures his grammar on the model of Sanskrit. However he is aware of its limitations in absorbing the features that are native to Kannada. Many a time his defences are thin and the real situation emerges forcefully. Many changes that are forbidden by him in a prescriptiva manner have taken place irrevocabally. This dichotomy has resulted in a grammar that truly holds a mirror to the Kannada language in a state of flux. His illustrations are chosen from varied sources and many of them have a literary flavour. His taste and his acquaintance with both the spoken and literary varieties of the languaage are impeccable. Many of his illustrations (Prayoga) are chosen from well known literary works even though he does not mention the original sources. . Keshiraja is to be admired for the fact that he could come out of the blinkers put by Sanskrit as early as the thiteenth century and create a grammar of enduring merit.
7. Publishing History: Shabdamanidarpanam,
Ed. J.Garret, 1868, Mysore Government Press,
8. Refereces and Criticism:
1. Introductions to these editions by the respective editors and other scholars
2. Commentaries by Nittura Nanjaiah
and Linganaradhya included in these editions. 3. 'Shbdamanidarpanada Pathantaragalu
mattu anubhavamruthavuu Harikathamruthasaravuu',
by D.K.Bheemasena Rao, 1951
4. ‘Aloka’, H.S.Biligiri,
197?, Akshara Prakashana, Hegoodu. 5. Darpanadeepike, G.Abdul Basheer,
9.Manuscripts: 1. Jaina Matha Mudabidri Shaka Varsha 1473 2. Shrvana Belagolada Manuscript 3. Manuscript used by D.K.Bheemasena Rao 4. Manuscripts used by L.Basavaraju
10. The mirror studded with precious gems held to words.